Food & Health
Food & Health
Common Diseases in Chickpeas
Didymella rabiei (Anamorph: Ascochyta rabiei)
Symptoms may appear at any time after plant emergence. First, gray circular spots appear on leaves and pods that later turn dark brown with black borders. Black dots (pycnidia) are also present in advanced lesions in concentric rings. Infected seeds may present no symptoms, discoloration, shrinkage, and/or shriveling. Pycnidia can also be present on infected seeds.
Infected seeds, infected debris, and infected fields nearby.
Moist weather conditions, rain splash, wind, and sprinkler irrigation.
Moderate temperatures between 15 to 25 °C (59 to 77 °C).
Leaf wetness for 18 to 24 hours.
Dense stands of chickpeas.
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri
Leaves droop, appear pale, plants collapse and lie flat on ground. Often; brown discoloration of internal root tissue is visible when the root splits into two vertically from collar region.
Higher, warmer, and drier weather conditions.
Absence of crop rotation.
Fusarium wilt on seedlings
Fusarium wilt on mature plant.
Note : Vascular discoloration.
Small patches of white powdery coating initially develop on both surfaces of the older leaves. Affected leaves turn purple then die. Stems, young leaves and pods are also covered with the powdery coating. The plant may also lose leaves too early in the season and produce seeds that are smaller than normal.
Cool and dry weather, no crop rotation, untimely sowing, nearby host plants with inoculum, and using non-resistant cultivars favor infection.
White Mold Stem and Crown Rot of Chickpea
Sclerotinia (S. minor, S. sclerotiorum, and S. trifoliorum).
A visible white mycelia grows around the stem on the soil surface. Black bodies (sclerotia) appear in various shapes and sizes on dead or dying chickpea stems. Infected stems become pale in color, like bleaching, and the symptoms spread both upward and downward along the stems.
Infected seeds or soil, moist weather, low temperature, and dense crops favor infection.
This pathogen is spread by wind.
Black Root Rot
Causal Organism: Fusarium solani
General symptoms include yellowing and wilting of scattered plants, rotten root system, shedding of finer roots, and remaining roots turning black.
High moisture and high temperature favor this
Causal Organism : Fusarium solani
Root Rot Under Dryland Conditions
Root Rot under dry land conditions and Root rot under irrigated conditions.
Causal Organism: Rhizoctonia solani
Reddish to dark brown root lesions can develop on epicotyls and hypocotyls. Brown discoloration occurring near the soil line on the epicotyls could girdle the stem. Seeds may rot, or when growing, develop rot or pre and post-emergent damping-off. Lesions developing on roots that eventually progress enough to pinch them off can be observed. Stems lesions can develop at or below the soil line. The lesions may expand above the soil line to the lower branches in older plants. Leaves can turn yellow upwards from the base of the plants. Circular patches of stunted plants may be observed in the field. A plant that can be easily pulled out from the soil is indicative of rot.
No-till or reduced-till and sandy soil favors infection. Cool temperatures (11 - 18°C) and root knot nematodes make plants more susceptible to infection, although the pathogen tolerates a wide range of soil temperatures.
Root rot at intial stages and Root rot at advanced stages.
Pythium Seedling and Root Rot
Causal Organism: Pythium sp.
Root tissue may die and become discolored, leading to less branching and fewer feeder roots. Low emergence and seed rot could occur. Discoloration of the crown and hypocotyl's tissue may be observed as rotting progresses. Stunting of plants is common and some plants can die before flowering, leading to reduced yield.
Some factors that favor infection include low soil temperatures, wet soil, and poorly drained or heavy clay soils. Thinner seed coat variety are more susceptible.(Ex. Kabuli)
Causal Organism: Peronospora sp.
The disease is often exhibited in a few branches, leading to curled or twisted leaves and dwarfed tips. The symptoms may appear on any aerial part of the plant with white mycelial patches appearing first on the lower leaf surfaces, then chlorotic to yellow spots on the upper surface. Fine, dirty, pinkish tufts of fungal growth are often formed on leaf surfaces under cool and humid conditions, which may disappear when dry conditions take over, resulting in yellowing symptoms. The chlorotic spots then become dark and brittle. Stunting and bushy apical growth with small leaflets is typical. The affected plants can also lose all their leaves, resulting in reduced yield and seed size.
Cool temperatures, humid conditions, high plant densities, and early planting are all conditions that favor the disease. In addition, shady areas are optimal spots for infection.
Causal Organism:Uromyces ciceris-arietini.
At first, small, round, brown spots (pustules) appear. The pustules are sometimes surrounded by chlorotic halos. They often appear in a ring pattern. These may combine later and turn dark. If the infection is severe, the leaves may drop off.
Leftover crop residue and contaminated seed can provide the inoculum for reinfection. Late season temperatures of around 68°F, high humidity, and late irrigation are optimal factors for infection.
Gray Mold(Botrytis Stem and Pod Rot)
Causal Organism:Botrytis cinerea.
Water soaked lesions on any aerial parts of the plant are indicative of infection, with the growing tips and flowers being the most susceptible. After some time, the lesions change to gray or dark brown and take on a fuzzy appearance as a result of the hairy sporophores and masses of conidia. The stem may be girdled by the lesions and the leaves often turn into a rotting mass. The dead tissues could have tiny, black sclerotia that form on them. If the disease moves to pods, the seed may not form or they may shrivel or become discolored. Frequently flowers drop and the pod formation could be unfavorable, leading to low grain yields.
Leftover plant residue and infested soil provides inoculum for infection. The optimal conditions are cool temperatures(59-68°F), dense canopies, wet weather or leaves, and high humidity, especially as the stand approaches maturity.
Causal Organism: Pea enation mosaic virus
Leaves tend to be twisted, malformed, mottled, and may roll. Vein clearing, translucent flecks, and yellowing can also be observed. Enations(hyperplastic outgrowths), could form on leaf and pod surfaces and pods may fill poorly. If they are infected at an early age, the plants may die or not produce seed of any quality, especially if co-infected with another virus.
Debris from previous crops can provide inoculum for the plants. If aphids are present, they can vector the virus from one plant to others, therefore, nearby infected plants and other hosts can contribute to the infection. Planting around perennial legume crops that can be hosts of aphids and not controlling weeds will increase movement of the aphid vectors into the crop.
Links to other websites with information about chickpea diseases some of which have been included here:
Weidong Chen, Hari C. Sharma, Fred J. Muehlbauer, 2011. Compendium of Chickpea and Lentil Diseases and Pests. The American Phytopathological Society.
K.L. Bailey, B.D. Gossen, R.K. Gugel, R.A.A. Morrall, 2003. Diseases of Field Crops in Canada. The Canadian Phytopathological Society.
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